Companies are investing in R&D to discover innovative ways to capture and store carbon efficiently. What are the most effective and commonly used methods of capturing and storing carbon in the industry?
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The power units generate power by burning fossil fuels (oil, natural gas or coal), to generates steam. The steam turns a tribune connected to an electricity generator. This process is called tribune combustion. Carbon is captured from power plants mainly in three ways: post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion.
Once carbon is captured it’s transported through pipelines and vehicles to its storage location in forms of gas, liquid or solids. Carbon can be stored in two places underground and underwater.
Carbon stored underground is found in liquid than a gas. It seeps in the spaces of porous rocks overlaid by permeable layer which is non-porous, known as geological sequestration. It is mainly used in the oil and gas industry to extract oil from depleted reservoirs. Basalt formation (volcanic rock) also helps in storing carbon. Basalt rocks are the most common types of rock, even the ocean floor is made up of it. When carbon is injected into these rocks, it turns into limestone. Other projects like CO2 sink and sleipner gas field is another ongoing project to test geological sequestration by injecting carbon into sandstones and seafloor.
In addition to underwater storage, it is safe to dump carbon directly into the ocean at a depth greater than 11,482 feet. Here carbon is compressed into mushy material on the ocean floor.
Here are some various routes which can be used to capture Co2. These are divided into absorption, membrane, adsorption and chemical looping.