All electrical and power machinery such as transformer and induction runs with the degree of efficiency that can be poor or excellent. The efficiency of such electrical equipment is demonstrated by the term power factor. Throughout the technological environment, the power factor is known as the ratio of the true power of the equipment to the apparent power.
What are various methods for improving the power factor?
The energy performance is the key element of the power factor, which is generally represented as a ratio. The power factor is an integral aspect of every electrical system which shows the efficiency of the installation and maintenance of electrical infrastructure. It also defines how well the incoming supply is used in the electrical network.
Ways to improve the power factors in an electrical power system
Capacitor banks are the set of capacitor which are arranged in series or parallel connection with the same power ratings. They are primarily used in AC power supplies to increase the power factor of the AC loads. Improving the power ratio involves raising the gap in phase between voltage and current. Due to the nature of many inductive loads, they require a certain amount of reactive power for them to function. This reactive power is given by capacitor or capacitor banks which are mounted parallel to the load. They generally act as a source of local reactive power and thus flow through the line with less reactive force. The capacitor banks reduce the phase difference between the voltage and current.
In addition to improving the power factor, the capacitor banks also boost the stability of the voltage. It acts as a filter in DC power supplies which reduce the ripple of the AC. They also deliver a constant DC supply and eliminating the sudden spikes and line fluctuations.
Like a capacitor bank, we may use an over-excited synchronous motor to increase the low-performance factor of the control network. The greatest benefit of using the synchronous motor is that power factor improvement is smooth. The synchronous condensers are 3-phase synchronous motor with no load fixed to its shaft. The synchronous motor has the features of working under running, lagging or unit power element, depending on the excitation. A synchronous condenser is attached to the load side for inductive loads and is overexcited. Synchronous condensers allow it work like a capacitor. It pulls the lagging current from the source of the reactive power supply.
Phase advancers are used to increase the power factor of the induction motors. The low power factor of the induction motor is caused by the fact that its winding stator draws an exciting current which lags behind the 90-degree supply voltage. Phase advancers are an AC exciter which is mainly used to improve the power factor of any induction motors. They are installed on the motor shaft and attached to the rotor circuit of the motor. It improves the power factor by ensuring that the exciting ampere turns to produce the required flow at the given slip frequency. Furthermore, if the ampere-turns rise, it can be allowed to work at the leading power factor.